Those was that sites

(CNN) — Shigeru Ban, the 57-year-old winner of this years Pritzker Prize — arguably the worlds most prestigious architecture award — is the Rumpelstiltskin of building design.
For more than two decades he has taken simple materials, including paper and cardboard, and created life-changing structures for people impacted by natural disasters.
In the aftermath of the 1995 earthquake in Kobe, Japan, Ban built temporary homes for Vietnamese refugees using beer crates filled with sandbags.

Shigeru Ban, architect

In 2011, after an earthquake and tsunami devastated large parts of Japan, Ban crafted homes from shipping containers.
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Last year he erected a cathedral made out of cardboard paper tubes for the people of Christchurch, New Zealand.
From Haiti to Rwanda to China, his low-cost structures become symbols of hope for people rebuilding their lives.
For me there is no difference between monumental architecture and temporary structures in disaster areas, he tells CNN. They give me the same kind of satisfaction.
Ban is the second Japanese artist in a row to win the prestigious award, following on from last years winner Toyo Ito.

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Tom Pritzker, Chairman and President of The Hyatt Foundation, which sponsors the Pritzker Prize, said: He is an outstanding architect who, for twenty years, has been responding with creativity and high quality design to extreme situations caused by devastating natural disasters. His buildings provide shelter, community centers, and spiritual places for those who have suffered tremendous loss and destruction.
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Congratulations on winning the Pritzker Prize. Where were you when you heard the news?
I was driving in Tokyo and I got the phone call from [executive director of the Pritzker Architecture Prize] Martha Thorne. Since I was on the jury from 2006 to 2009, I thought she was just joking. I had to stop and park the car.
Youve earned global recognition for bridging the humanitarian and aesthetic aspects of architecture. Was it really such a surprise that you had won?
Honestly, it was a big surprise. I didnt expect it. As a juror I knew the level of the past winners and I didnt think I was at that level. But then it was explained to me that this year the jury considered not only the argument of architecture, but also my activities in disaster areas for 20 years. I carry on both activities simultaneously. So I thought this was not awarded because I reached a certain level as an architect, but as encouragement for me to continue working in disaster areas as well as designing architecture.
Even more opportunities will now come your way. Is there a risk this prize could actually distract you from continuing your humanitarian work?
When some people receive a big award there are more opportunities for their projects and to expand their offices. I dont want to make my office bigger. I like to design everything by myself and to go to the sites. I want to keep working in disaster areas. If I get more projects then I can spend less time on each project and I dont want to lower the quality of each project. I think we have to be very careful to keep doing the same things, as we have done.
How did the idea of working with cardboard come to you?

I was very disappointed about our profession. I thought that as architects we could work more for society.
Shigeru Ban

The strength and durability of a building has nothing to do with the material. Even a building built in concrete can be destroyed very easily. There can be a permanent building made out of cardboard tubes. In fact many of my temporary buildings have become permanent. When I first used the cardboard tube for the interior I knew this is strong enough to be a part of the structure.
Starchitects tend to devote the bulk of their time to glamorous commissions. What drove you to disaster relief?
I was very disappointed about our profession. I thought that as architects we could work more for society. Historically speaking, architecture clients are people who had the money and the power. They wanted to visualize power and money with monumental architecture. That was the architects basic job historically. Im not saying that is a bad thing. I also want to make a monument. But I thought we should use our experience and knowledge for the public and victims of natural disasters too. I get the same satisfaction when I design a building for a disaster. There is no difference. The only difference is I am not paid. Its pro bono.
Are there young architects in the pipeline who want to follow in your footsteps?
When I give the lecture I always feel a strong reaction from young architects and students. They are interested in working for society and joining my team. When I was a student we used to think, I want to be a starchitect and big developer. The attitudes of young people are changing and I feel that. If I have been able to help. I think this is my biggest pleasure.
Do you have any advice for those who want to go into disaster architecture?
I appreciate when people want to come and join my team and do this work. But instead of just working in a disaster area its important to travel a lot and to experience different cultures, different climates. Its important for them to be good architects first.
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Cell will organs

(CNN) — The emerging process of 3-D printing, which uses computer-created digital models to create real-world objects, has produced everything from toys to jewelry to food.
Soon, however, 3-D printers may be spitting out something far more complex, and controversial: human organs.
For years now, medical researchers have been reproducing human cells in laboratories by hand to create blood vessels, urine tubes, skin tissue and other living body parts. But engineering full organs, with their complicated cell structures, is much more difficult.
Enter 3-D printers, which because of their precise process can reproduce the vascular systems required to make organs viable. Scientists are already using the machines to print tiny strips of organ tissue. And while printing whole human organs for surgical transplants is still years away, the technology is rapidly developing.
The mechanical process isnt all that complicated. The tricky part is the materials, which are biological in nature, said Mike Titsch, editor-in-chief of 3D Printer World, which covers the industry. It isnt like 3-D printing plastic or metal. Plastic doesnt die if you leave it sitting on an open-air shelf at room temperature for too long.
Lawrence Bonassar, a professor of biomedical engineering at Cornell University, with an artificial ear made via 3-D printing and injectable molds.
The idea of printing a human kidney or liver in a lab may seem incomprehensible, even creepy. But to many scientists in the field, bioprinting holds great promise. Authentic printed organs could be used for drug or vaccine testing, freeing researchers from less accurate methods such as tests on animals or on synthetic models.
Then theres the hope that 3-D printers could someday produce much-needed organs for transplants. Americans are living longer, and as we get deeper into old age our organs are failing more. Some 18 people die in the United States each day waiting in vain for transplants because of a shortage of donated organs — a problem that Anthony Atala, director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine and a pioneer in bioprinting, calls a major health crisis.
An exciting new area of medicine
Bioprinting works like this: Scientists harvest human cells from biopsies or stem cells, then allow them to multiply in a petri dish. The resulting mixture, a sort of biological ink, is fed into a 3-D printer, which is programmed to arrange different cell types, along with other materials, into a precise three-dimensional shape. Doctors hope that when placed in the body, these 3-D-printed cells will integrate with existing tissues.
The process already is seeing some success. Last year a 2-year-old girl in Illinois, born without a trachea, received a windpipe built with her own stem cells. The U.S. government has funded a university-led body on a chip project that prints tissue samples that mimic the functions of the heart, liver, lungs and other organs. The samples are placed on a microchip and connected with a blood substitute to keep the cells alive, allowing doctors to test specific treatments and monitor their effectiveness.
This is an exciting new area of medicine. It has the potential for being a very important breakthrough, said Dr. Jorge Rakela, a gastroenterologist at the Mayo Clinic in Phoenix and a member of the American Liver Foundations medical advisory committee.
One of Organovos engineers oversees the construction of a vascular tissue construct on a Novotel bioprinter.
Three-D printing allows you to be closer to what is happening in real life, where you have multiple layers of cells, he said. With current 2-D models, if you grow more than one or two layers, the cells at the bottom suffocate from lack of oxygen.
To accelerate the development of bioprinted organs, a Virginia foundation that supports regenerative medicine research announced in December it will award a $1 million prize for the first organization to print a fully functioning liver.
One early contender for the prize is Organovo, a California start-up that has been a leader in bioprinting human body parts for commercial purposes. Using cells from donated tissue or stem cells, Organovo is developing what it hopes will be authentic models of human organs, primarily livers, for drug testing.
The company has printed strips of human liver tissue in its labs, although they are still very small: four by four by one millimeter, or about one-fourth the size of a dime. Each strip takes about 45 minutes to print, and it takes another two days for the cells to grow and mature, said Organovo CEO Keith Murphy. The models can then survive for about 40 days.
Organovo has also built models of human kidneys, bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessels and lung tissue, he said.
Basically what it allows you to do is build tissue the way you assemble something with Legos, Murphy said. So you can put the right cells in the right places. You cant just pour them into a mold.
Ethical concerns
Not everyone is comfortable with this bold new future of lab-built body parts, however.
A research director at Gartner Inc., the information-technology research and advisory firm, believes 3-D bioprinting is advancing so quickly that it will spark a major ethical debate by 2016.
A 3-D printer at Cornell University produces an artificial ear.
Three-D bioprinting facilities with the ability to print human organs and tissue will advance far faster than general understanding and acceptance of the ramifications of this technology, Pete Basiliere said in a recent report.
These initiatives are well-intentioned, but raise a number of questions that remain unanswered, Basiliere added. What happens when complex enhanced organs involving nonhuman cells are made? Who will control the ability to produce them? Who will ensure the quality of the resulting organs?
Bioprinted organs are also likely to be expensive, which could put them out of reach of all but the wealthiest patients.
Murphy said Organovo only uses human cells in creating tissues, and doesnt see any ethical problems with what his company is doing.
People used to worry about doing research on cadavers … and that dissipated very quickly, he said. We dont think theres any controversy if youre producing good data and helping people with health conditions.
Most experts, including Wake Forests Atala, dont think well see complex 3-D-printed organs, suitable for transplants, for years if not decades. Instead, they believe the next step will be printing strips of tissue, or patches, that could be used to repair livers and other damaged organs.
Organovo also uses the Nuveen MMX Bio printer, which is small enough to fit into a cabinet.
We are very eager to put pieces of tissue to work for surgical transplants, said Organovos Murphy, who hopes his company will be ready to begin clinical trials within five years.
Of course, any use of 3-D-printed tissue in surgical procedures would require approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. That review process could take up to a decade.
By then, the notion of a surgeon putting a 3-D-printed kidney into a patient may not seem so bizarre. Then again, this swiftly evolving technology may create new moral conundrums.
The ethical questions are bound to be the same concerns we have seen in the past. Many major medical breakthroughs have suffered moral resistance, from organ transplants to stem cells, said Titsch of 3D Printer World.
Will only the rich be able to afford it? Are we playing God? In the end, saving lives tends to trump all objections.

Very been painting heirs

Rome (CNN) — Two stolen paintings by the French artists Paul Gauguin and Pierre Bonnard hung on an Italian factory workers kitchen wall for almost 40 years — without his knowing just how valuable they were.
Now worth millions of euros, the artworks were stolen from a family house in London in 1970 and then abandoned on a Paris-to-Turin train.
Italys Culture Ministry unveiled the two paintings Wednesday after they were recovered by police specialized in finding stolen art, following an incredible series of events.
The paintings were put away in the Italian Railways lost and found storage facility. At a lost-property auction in 1975, the unsuspecting Fiat worker paid 45,000 Italian lire for them — roughly equivalent to 22 euros ($30). The man was an art lover, but he had no idea of the real value of the paintings, police said.
The man, whom police did not name, hung the works in his Turin home before taking them to Sicily when he retired.
Italian heritage police were alerted last summer when a friend of the worker grew suspicious of their value.
There are all the elements for a nice novel; it is very unique, Gen. Mariano Mossa, head of the Italian Heritage Police, said at a news conference.
Locked up in a safe
Police soon matched the works with those stolen in London. A notice of the theft had appeared in The New York Times on July 6, 1970.
The Gauguin painting, titled Fruits sur une Table ou Nature au Petit Chien (Fruits on a Table or Still Life with a Small Dog), is said to have been painted in 1889 and thought to be worth between 10 million and 30 million euros, police said.
The Bonnard painting is titled La Femme aux Deux Fauteuils (Woman with Two Armchairs).
Gauguin was a post-impressionist artist, and Bonnard is regarded as one of the greatest colorists of modern art.
It was still unclear to whom the paintings would be returned, as the couple they were stolen from have died, apparently leaving no heirs. For now, they will remain in a police safe.
The theft that created a legend
Art looted by Nazis found in German apartment

Eventual heartbreak g we s

(CNN) — The 2014 World Cup in Brazil has thrown up the chance for revenge and the opportunity for the apprentice to become the master.
While the Netherlands will have an early opportunity for payback by taking on Spain in a repeat of the 2010 final, U.S. coach Jurgen Klinsmann will have the chance to lead his side against his native Germany.
Germany, coached by Klinsmanns former assistant Joachim Low, and the U.S. are in Group G along with Portugal and Ghana.
Klinsmann led Germany to the semifinals in 2006 where it was beaten by eventual winner Italy.
But the 49-year-old faces a difficult task to steer the U.S. through the group with Cristiano Ronaldos Portugal and a tricky Ghana side also in contention.
December 6, 2013
Its a tough group no doubt about that, Hodgson told reporters.
Weve almost got two number one seeds in our group, with Italy and Uruguay.
Our great advantage is being based in Rio – meaning that weve only got that one really long trip.
Im very positive, you just never know. You dont win football matches on paper, you go out on each occasion 11 vs. 11. If youre well prepared youve got a chance to win all three of the games.
While Hodgson might be positive, England Football Association chairman Greg Dyke was rather more downbeat.
When Englands name was pulled out, Dyke drew his fingers across his throat in a cut-throat gesture.
Former Nigeria international Sunday Oliseh believes his country has every chance of making it through to the last-16 after being drawn in Group F with Argentina, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Iran.
The Nigerians are ecstatic, myself included, because we have Iran in the group — with all due respect to them I think we should be able to negotiate this encounter, he told CNN.
Weve also got Bosnia, who are playing for the first time in the World Cup finals as a nation. Our chances are pretty bright and its looking interesting.
Ask many Brazilians who is the greatest footballer of all time and their answer will be simple: Pele. The striker won three World Cups with Brazil between 1958 and 1970 and is his countrys leading goalscorer with 77 goals from 92 caps.
The Brazil team of 1970, which beat Italy 4-1 in the World Cup final in Mexico, is widely regarded as the greatest of all time. Pele is seen here leaping on his teammates.
Pele told CNN that his most memorable moment as a player was winning the 1958 World Cup when he was just 17.
Brazil also won the title in 1962 in Chile, but Pele did not play in the final after being injured in Brazils second game.
Pele told CNN that his ideal final for 2014 would feature Brazil and Uruguay — so his country can win revenge for 1950s heartbreaking Maracana defeat in the deciding match between the two South American teams.
Aerial view of the Christ the Redeemer statue atop Corcovado Hill, overlooking the Maracana stadium in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The famous arena will host the 2014 World Cup final on July 13.
In November 2013, two people were killed when a falling crane created a partial collapse of a World Cup stadium in Sao Paulo.
Pele: The legend
The greatest
Teen dream
Injury blow
Revenge mission?
Rio ready
Stadium tragedy
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Pele: World Cup will be fantastic
Nigerias toughest assignment looks set to come against Argentina and Lionel Messi at Port Alegre on June 25.
Oliseh, who played at the 1994 and 1998 World Cup, says Nigeria will have to be at its very best to stop Messi from running riot.
Messi is one of the best to have ever played football, he said.
He can do everything except head the ball. The question is how do you stop him?
You cant really if hes on a good day. What we need to worry about is Messi going to be healthy come 2014? If he is healthy, we have a problem. But we have nothing to fear — for the first time in a long time we feel we have nothing to lose.
Argentina, which won the tournament in 1978 and 1986, will be favorites to top the group and will play Bosnia in Rio de Janeiro in its opening match on June 15.
In Group H, Belgium will be confident of qualifying for the next stage after being drawn alongside Algeria, Russia and Korea.
The Belgians finished fourth in 1986 but have not appeared in the tournament since 2002.
Belgium is highly-fancied to reach the later stages this time around and will meet Algeria in its opening game in Belo Horizonte on June 17.
Colombia is in Group C where it will take on Greece, Ivory Coast and Japan.
France, which qualified through the playoffs, will take on Switzerland, Ecuador and Honduras.
Didier Deschamps, who won the World Cup with Les Bleus in 1998, believes his side can go far in the tournament after seeing off Ukraine in the European playoffs.
It could have been more complicated, lets be honest, he told reporters.
Well have our Swiss neighbors, one South American team and Honduras playing a similar style.
First game is against Honduras, its the most important one, winning it would put us in the best position. No opponent is easy, we need to be ambitious but reasonable. Before and after the draw our objective is the same: Round of 16.
Former England, Manchester United and Bayern Munich midfielder Owen Hargreaves says France and Argentina are the big winners following the draw.
He told CNN: France, being the lowest-ranked European team going into the draw, will be thrilled. Colombia have a favorable group as well.
Argentina are clear favorites in their group and I think Bosnia will finish in second place and make it into the next round.
2014 World Cup draw:
Group A: Brazil, Croatia, Mexico, Cameroon.
Group B: Spain, Netherlands,Chile, Australia.
Group C: Colombia, Greece, Ivory Coast, Japan.
Group D: Uruguay, Costa Rica, England, Italy.
Group E: Switzerland, Ecuador, France,Honduras.
Group F: Argentina, Bosnia, Iran, Nigeria.
Group G: Germany, Portugal,Ghana, USA.
Group H: Belgium, Algeria, Russia, Korea.
Read: World Cup draw as it happened
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really ethical learning eyeliner

(CNN) — Frank Sinatra is back, crooning Fly Me To The Moon live in his trademark suit and fedora as if he had never left the stage. A decade and a half after Ol Blue Eyes passed away, this unexpected new appearance has been made possible with an optical technology called Musion Eyeliner.
Based on a Victorian-era light projection system called Peppers Ghost which was developed by two inventors — Henry Dircks and John Pepper — in the 1860s, Musion Eyeliner offers a range of spectacular stage effects that, in addition to bringing Frank Sinatra back to life, have been used to reanimate Tupac Shakur, Michael Jackson and Elvis Presley.
Uwe Maass, the inventor or Musion Eyeliner, explains that when it was first developed in the 19th century, Peppers Ghost was quite straightforward: The Peppers Ghost system is relatively simple. It is a piece of foil in a 45 degree angle and it reflects the image from the floor onto the stage. From the audiences perspective the light projection can offer all kinds of effects including making realistic 3-D people appear on stage.
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3D projector creates life-like holograms

Maass — an accomplished electronic engineer with 30 years experience in optics — advanced the concept of Peppers Ghost with modern video projection and animation techniques that serve to update the old technology.
Maasss main innovation is to replace the glass used in original systems with an invisible polymer foil to offer a more substantial image while also allowing the stage behind to remain visible. Maasss developments quickly attracted interest from senior figures around the entertainment industry:
I first thought of it 15 years ago and I filed a patent application using foil for a Peppers Ghost system and two weeks later I got phone calls from Steven Spielbergs people. They came to my office (as well as representatives) from Disney and Siegfried and Roy … David Copperfield came personally, Maass says.
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Even though it has been around since the 90s, Musion Eyeliner really came to prominence in 2006 when Madonna performed alongside the animated British band Gorillaz at the 48th Annual Grammy Awards. Since then the technology has been used by Universal Studios, Disney, and Sony, as well as performers including ABBA, Will.i.am, Mick Jagger, and Mariah Carey, as well as Snoop Dogg and Dr Dre in their famous performance alongside Tupac at Coachella in 2012.

Musion Eyeliner was famously used to resurrect rapper Tupac in 2012

Maass is also working with artists to help create shows that bring together members whose schedules clash: We got a lot of good response from the artists Black Eyed Peas (and) Will.i.am, Maass says. Theyre really pleased with the system because in France they couldnt travel all together, so we had two of the group members virtually on stage and performing together, interacting together with the rest of the group who were real on stage.
The system has also been used to simulcast events and performances around the world:
Another application is teleconferencing … You can have one performance on one stage that is live and then you can have a hundred performances at the same time all over the world with the same concert, says Maass.

Journalist Nick Glass meets a hologram of himself

Resurrecting performers of the past comes with a complex of legal, technical and ethical questions, but has nevertheless been proving popular with audiences around the world. Maass says that his companys next main project is to help Cirque du Soleil bring the work of Michael Jackson back to life in the Immortal World Tour.
In an interview with Ebony Magazine in 2007 Michael Jackson said Music has been my outlet, my gift to all of the lovers in this world. Through it — my music — I know I will live forever.
With the help of Musion Eyeliner, Jackson may be immortalized in a more literal way than he could ever have imagined.
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Matthew Ponsford and Andrew Stewart contributed to this article

1208-1218. Pope Innocent 3rd wrote to the king of France,

1208-1218. Pope Innocent 3rd wrote to the king of France, stating that the Cathars were worse than the Muslim Infidel and that he should organise a crusade against the Cathars. All those taking part would receive the same benefits as Crusaders to the Middle East Holy Land so long as they signed up for 40 days. A military commander emerged called Baron Simon de Montfort supported by the fanatical Papal Legate, Arnald Amaury, Abbot of Citeaux. With a Crusade of some 15,000 men it took about 10 years to exterminate some 15,000 men women and children from the Cathars (and Jews who got caught up in the massacre.) During this period the Spanish King of Aragon came in on the side of the Cathars but was defeated and when Simon de Montfort was killed at Toulouse the King of France himself took on the role of Crusade commander. At the end those Cathars who survived disappeared into Lombardy, present day northern Italy and Catalonia, Barcelona, north east Spain.

Notes

The territory influenced by the Cathars covered much of present day Southern France. Part of this land was being ruled by the Norman Kings of England and a part further east, away from the coast, by another King, Louis 9th of a much smaller France.

1206: The next threat to the wealth and domination of the Catholic Church came

1206: The next threat to the wealth and domination of the Catholic Church came not from the Muslims in the Middle East but from a fundamentalist religious movement, the Cathars of France. Indeed the origins of this creed came from the Bogomils in Bulgaria which is nearby Constantinople via the Black Sea and would have been ruled by the Byzantines and come under the teachings of the Christian Orthodox Church at this time. Cathars and Bogomils believed in the fundamental teachings of early Christians without believing that Jesus was the Messiah or the son of God.

The Cathars came to France at a time when the Catholic Church was at a morally low ebb. In some places Mass had not been taken for 30 years. Priests lived like Nobles many having a harem of mistresses. The Pope himself described his own priests as “worse than beasts wallowing in their own dung”. On the other hand Cathars did not “bully, extort, traffic in guilt, emotionally blackmail, tyrannise or terrorise with threats of eternal damnation or demand payment or bribes at every opportunity”. Catholics fled to the Cathars in droves which had an immediate and serious effect on the churches income.

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